1. Learning outcomes:

    Mutagenicity and genotoxicity

    • Explain the difference between genotoxicity and mutagenicity
    • Describe the structure of DNA, what is meant by chromosomes and genes
    • Explain what is meant by cell replication, why it is needed, how it occurs and how it is controlled
    • Explain the difference between gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities and other types of DNA damage
    • Explain the consequences of mutations in somatic cells compared to germ cells
    • Outline the aim of genetic toxicity testing and the approach which is taken in the assessment. (In vitro, in vivo, controls, cytotoxicity etc) for both somatic cell and germ cell mutagenicity
    • Explain the approach used for the evaluation of results


    • Define what is meant by cancer, carcinogenesis, tumour, neoplasm
    • Describe the difference between a normal cell and a neoplastic cell
    • Explain the difference between a benign and malignant tumour
    • Outline the stages for the development of a cancer and the genetic drivers of cancer
    • Describe what is meant by the 'hallmarks of cancer' 
    • Outline the causes of cancer and the issues with regards to its identification
    • Explain the current approach which is used to identify carcinogens (QSAR, epidemiological studies, genetic toxicity studies, in vitro studies and animal studies)
    • Outline the important considerations when interpreting results
    • Be able to apply the current classification and labelling criteria in accordance with EU CLP and GHS for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity
    Laura Robinson Laura Robinson
    Occupational Toxicologist, Toxicology Consulting Ltd, UK