After taking the modules in this elearning course, you will be able to:
MODULE 01 - Introduction to toxicology
- Define the term 'toxicology'
- Describe the different ways in which chemicals can cause harm
- Explain the impact that physical forms can have on toxicity and exposure
MODULE 02 - How to assess for toxicity
- Define the terms 'in vitro', 'ex vivo', 'in vivo'
- Explain what is meant by the term 'alternative methods' and how the 3R’s form part of these
- Describe what other non-animal alternatives are available for finding test data
- Explain what is meant by in vivo studies and two of the main issues regarding their use
MODULE 03 - Risk, hazard and exposure
- Define the terms 'risk', 'hazard' and 'exposure'
- Describe the three main routes of exposure and the significance to toxicity
MODULE 04 - Dose response effects
- Define the terms 'dose' and 'response'
- Draw a “typical” dose response curve and describe the key parts
- Explain what is meant by the term 'threshold'
- Explain the difference between thresholded and non-thresholded effects with examples
- Define the terms 'NOAEL' and 'LOAEL'
MODULE 05 - Irritation and corrosion
- Define the terms 'local effect', 'irritant' and 'corrosive'
- Explain what is meant by irritant contact dermatitis and how it typically occurs
- Explain the common testing methods that are used to detect chemical corrosives and irritants
MODULE 06 - Toxicokinetics
- Define the term 'toxicokinetics'
- Explain what happens at each of the respective stages: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
MODULE 07 - Acute toxicity
- Define the term 'acute toxicity' and explain how it differs to 'repeated dose toxicity'
- Explain why it is not possible to use acute toxicity data to predict repeated dose effects
- Describe the common testing strategies that can be used to assess acute toxicity
MODULE 08 - Repeated dose toxicity (target organ effects)
- Define the terms 'systemic effect' and 'target organ effect' with examples
- Explain the different types of repeated dose studies and the basic differences between these
- Describe the common testing strategies that are used for repeated dose toxicity
MODULE 09 - Carcinogens
- Define the terms 'carcinogenicity', 'benign and malignant tumours', 'genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens'
- Outline the steps in carcinogenesis
- Describe the common causes of cancer
- Describe the common testing strategies for detecting chemical carcinogens
MODULE 10 - Genetic toxicology
- Explain the differences between DNA, genes and chromosomes
- Define the terms 'mutagenicity' and 'genotoxicity'
- Describe the types of effects that can occur (on genes, chromosomes and DNA itself) as a result of chemical exposure
- Explain the significance of genetic toxicology and its relationship with carcinogenesis
- Describe the common testing approach and methods that are used for genetic toxicology
MODULE 11 - Reproductive and developmental effects
- Define the terms 'reproductive toxicology' and 'developmental effects'
- Give examples of common adverse effects that are typical of reproductive or developmental toxins
- Outline the common testing strategies that are used to investigate such effects
MODULE 12 - Chemical allergies
- Describe how an allergy develops
- Define the term 'allergic contact dermatitis'
- Explain the difference between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis
- Define the terms 'respiratory hypersensitivity', 'occupational asthma' and 'work-related asthma'
- Explain the significance of developing an allergy to a chemical in the work place
- Outline the common testing methods used to detect respiratory and skin sensitisers
MODULE 13a - EMERGING CONCEPTS - AOP
- Define the term 'adverse outcome pathways' (AOP)
- Identify the three main pieces of information which are required to develop an AOP
- Explain the usefulness of AOP in toxicology
- Identify two current issues related to the use of AOP
MODULE 13b - EMERGING CONCEPTS – Combined effects
- Explain the current issues related to toxicity testing for mixtures
- Describe what is meant by the terms 'additive', 'synergistic', 'antagonistic' and 'potentiation'
MODULE 13c - EMERGING CONCEPTS – Endocrine disruptors
- Describe what is meant by the endocrine system and its function within living organisms
- Explain the term ‘endocrine disruptor’ and ‘endocrine active’ substances
- Describe what is meant by low dose effects and non-monotonic dose response
- Outline the key issues related to the assessment of endocrine disruptors
MODULE 13d - EMERGING CONCEPTS - Nanoparticles
- Explain what is meant by the term 'nanoparticle'
- Give two examples of nanomaterials
- Outline the current key issues related to nanoparticles
MODULE 14 - Toxicology & Human Health Risk Assessment
- Explain what is meant by the term ‘risk assessment’
- Outline the main stages of risk assessment
- Define the term ‘DNEL’ and explain how it is used
- Explain what is meant by safety factors/uncertainty factors and assessment factors, and how these are used
- Describe the two approaches which can be used for exposure assessment
- Explain what is meant by risk characterisation and how it is used